So powerful were Martin Luther's broadsides against papal authority that they polarized a continent and tore apart the very foundation of Western Christendom. But who was the man behind the Ninety-five Theses? Lyndal Roper's biography goes beyond Luther's theology to investigate the inner life of the religious reformer who has been called "the last medieval man and the first modern one. Luther was a brilliant writer whose biblical translations had a lasting impact on the German language. Yet he was also a strident fundamentalist whose scathing rhetorical attacks threatened to alienate those he might persuade.
He had a colorful, even impish personality, and when he left the monastery to get married "to spite the Devil," he explained , he wooed and wed an ex-nun.
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But he had an ugly side too. When German peasants rose up against the nobility, Luther urged the aristocracy to slaughter them. He was a ferocious anti-Semite and a virulent misogynist, even as he argued for liberated human sexuality within marriage.
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By bringing us closer than ever to the man himself, Roper opens up a new vision of the Reformation and the world it created and draws a fully three-dimensional portrait of its founder. Zwischen Fundamentalismus und Moderne : Literatur aus dem Maghreb Book 5 editions published in in German and held by 78 WorldCat member libraries worldwide. Unter dem Schock einer alarmierenden medizinischen Diagnose verbringt Franz Ritter, Musikwissenschaftler in Wien, eine schlaflose Nacht. Quelle: www. The screenplay was based on this novel. As if his parents' story wasn't enough, there's more, a coda of sorts -- though Grimbert can barely go there.
There's a second family tragedy, one that a grown Grimbert is much closer to, but he can't do much more than describe what happens in a brief paragraph, wondering what the last words his father had murmured into his mother's ears were, unable to bring himself to consider much more surrounding that act [of committing suicide].
It is only when the boy begins talking to an old family friend that he comes to realize that his imaginary sibling had a real predecessor: a half brother whose death in the concentration camps is part of a buried family secret that he was intended never to uncover. For Grimbert, the aftermath of WWII forced survivors into prisons of their own memories and denial, bound together by an impossible grief. Vive Dada! So endet Jacques de Molay am Er will nicht lernen loszulassen, sondern im Gegenteil weiterhin mit der Geliebten leben.
Um es herauszufinden, befragt er die Menschen in seiner Umgebung, er fragt Philosophen, Physik. Hier lebt, illegal und ohne Papiere, Lakhdar, 20 Jahre alt, aus Marokko. Dann taucht Bassam auf. As for the nature of the relationship between lyrical poetry and music — chant and song — Auden discusses it at some length in his introduction to An Elizabethan Song Book Poets at Work, ed.
Abbott New York, , Auden finds literature to be superior to painting because it is, first and foremost, a temporal art. However, in the more extended fictional forms it suffers — in his opinion — from leaving too much room for reflection, thereby allowing the other temporal dimensions to intervene: the past in the form of memories and regrets, and the future in the form of hopes, doubts, and anticipations.
Moreover, the metaphorical nature of language encourages an implicit spatialization through imagery; and this in turn impairs and at times destroys that immediacy of feeling and directness of movement which is the hallmark of the esthetic constructs admired by Kierkegaard and Auden: A verbal statement and a musical phrase are both temporal successions of sounds that take time to say or play, but words, unlike notes, have denotative meanings.
Consequently in most verbal statements there is little or no relation between the temporal expression of the words and the thought which they express. Among the kinds of literature it is drama which comes closest to meeting the demands for an art of pure becoming in which every moment is felt in its immediacy while at the same time there is a contiguous sweeping movement, each choice leading to an action and each action compelling those involved in, or affected by, it to choose anew. In other words, drama is the only form of literature based on the premise that what really counts is the individual will and its assertion in thought choice or deed action ; the only disadvantage being that, as a verbal art, it is still ethically determined.
Both choices entail some degree of responsibility on the part of their agents. The final and irrevocable parting of ways occurs precisely at the point of transition from drama to opera — or, more generally but also more vaguely speaking, from literature to music; for the ethical is chained to the primary world by means of realism and psychology, whereas the esthetic belongs, ideally, to the domain of pure spirit which constitutes a world of artifice where ethical categories are no longer applicable.
Opera, XII , Expounding Kierkegaard — as early as — Auden surveyed the dialectic triangular relationship between Art, Morality, and Religion and concluded: In treating [ But in asserting that the good act — not stealing — is always and only the product of good will, and the bad act — stealing — always the product of an evil will, it sides with the Ethical against the Esthetic belief that to will is valuable in itself.
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Lastly, it disagrees with both in blessing an act neither for its manifestly interesting appearance nor for its demonstrably good result, but for its hidden subjective intention. To the Esthetic, as the Ethical, any suffering involved in an act is accidental and without significance in itself, but to the Religious it is precisely in the suffering that the significance lies With Auden, as with Kierkegaard, the greatness and perfection of a work of art depends entirely on the extent to which it succeeds in attracting the spirit of sensuous genius and repelling the moral elements from its territory.
It is precisely this which makes an ethically determined story interesting: It is rare for the story of a successful opera to be interesting in itself. Even Don Juan, a character of profound extramusical significance, cannot be said to have a story since, by definition, he cannot or will not change himself; he can only be shown as triumphant and invulnerable the Duke in Rigoletto , or in his fall Don Giovanni [ DH, f. It might not be without interest to run through the whole opera in order to show that its subject matter, considered as operatic material, profoundly fails of its purpose.
Nor would we lack occasion to illuminate the erotic from a new side, as we noticed how the endeavor to invest it with a deeper ethical view [ This opera definitely tends toward the unmusical, and therefore it is, in spite of individually perfect concert numbers and deeply moving, pathetic utterances, by no means a classic opera Opera, then, must be ethically indifferent so that, in effect, every choice made by an operatic character is automatically a good — or, at any rate, the right — one.
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In the operatic medium, he surmises, anomaly is heightened an innocent bystander might say: to the point of absurdity , for the singer may be playing the role of a deserted bride who is about to kill herself, but we feel quite certain as we listen that not only we but also she is having a wonderful time. In a sense, there can be no tragic opera because whatever errors the characters make and whatever they suffer, they are doing exactly what they wish In the case of some operas like Rosenkavalier and Arabella one cannot even tell the sex.
Weisstein New York, , A literal translation is needed only in the recitatives — secco and accompagnato — and the prose dialogue, whose function it is to propel the action after it has been suspended in the closed numbers. Music, one might say, is always intransitive, and in the first person. The passage is deleted in DH.
Auden New York, , esp.
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Because they are not free. Because the giddy multitude are driven by the unpredictable Must of their pleasures and the sober few are bound by the inflexible Ought of their duty, between which slaveries there is nothing to choose. Would you be happy? Then learn to act freely.
Would you act freely? Then learn to ignore those twin tyrants of appetite and conscience For Auden the gratuitous act, being unattached to ethics, religion, psychology, and the world of social taboos and biological urges, is the very epitome of esthetic behavior. Its archenemy is verisimilitude in its various guises: the sensible, the credible, the plausible, and the probable.
The precise semantic implications of these terms have been the subject of an exchange of views between Auden and his fellow librettist Ronald Duncan This means that no opera plot can be sensible; for in sensible situations people do not sing. An opera plot must be, in both senses of the word, a melodrama. Puccini and Strauss foreshadow the decline of the High or Golden Style, which is complete in modern opera. An operalover will put up with and even enjoy an orchestral interlude on condition that he knows the singers cannot sing just now because they are tired or the scene-shifters are at work, but any use of the orchestra by itself which is not filling in time is, for him, wasting it.
Leonora III is a fine piece to listen to in the concert hall, but in the opera house, where it is played between scenes one and two of the second act of Fidelio it becomes twelve minutes of acute boredom Irishman Irland: 1. Ireland Ironie: 1. Islam Island: 1. Iceland Isolator: 1.
Israel 2. Israel Italien: 1. Italy Italiener: 1. Italian Jacht: 1. January Japaner: 1.
Japanese Japanisch: 1. Japanese, Japanese language Jargon: 1. Hebrew, Jew 2. Jew Jugend: 1. Yugoslavia Juli: 1. July Junge: 1. June Jupon: 1. Cairo Kaiser: 1. Calabria Kalb: 1. California Kalium: 1. Calvin Kalzium: 1. Canada Kanadier: 1. Canadian Kanadierin: 1. Canadian woman Kanaille: 1.