The latter is presented in the following. This section explains the concept of touch screen TS technology, discusses its significance and portrays its pros and cons. In principle, touch screens facilitate the navigation around GUI 17 based environments. They can be defined as follows:. A touch screen is an electronic visual display that can detect the presence and location of a touch within the display area.
The term generally refers to touching the display with a finger, hand […] or other passive objects, such as stylus. In other words, a touch screen is any monitor […] that accepts direct onscreen input.
This technology enables one to directly interact with the screen rather than using a cursor controlled by a mouse or touchpad. This more human, intuitive approach has the potential to replace most functions of the mouse and keyboard. Consumer electronics, such as in- car navigation systems, are also increasingly adopting the touch technology, which is constantly evolving. In comparison with other pointing devices, touch screens for PCs have various advantages and disadvantages, illustrated in the following table:.
Currently, single-touch screens one touch at a time are predominant for touch-enabled AiO PCs. Single touch allows for operations like clicking, dragging and painting in an intuitive way. However, as technology advances, multi-touch touch screens two or more touches on screen at the same time are on the rise. This is especially true with the upcoming release of new or updated versions of PC operating systems, which are expected to be optimized for touch functionality. Multi-touch gestures additionally offer the ability to stretch, squeeze, or rotate an object on screen and to perform more than one action simultaneously.
The subsequent explorative research in this paper will analyze, to what extent this input method is desired and accepted amongst consumers for larger, desk-based PC screens. The goal of this thesis is to analyze the market environment for touch-enabled All-in-One PCs.
For this purpose we must consider that AiO PCs are technological and innovative products. In the introduction it was established that the author argues that varying customer segments are differently aware of technological products and innovations. On another note, it is to be determined to what extent those varying stages of technology adoption influence the traditional Marketing Mix.
In this regard, the speed of technology development must be mentioned. Furthermore, the depth of consumer behavior and the concept of market segmentation are explained.
Later on, a model to measure technology adoption will exemplify the natural path of acceptance of new technologies and innovations by consumers. Last but not least, a clear distinction is drawn between the terms invention and innovation. Before going into detail about strategic marketing, it is at first necessary to clearly define various terms and concepts individually. From early on, the term strategy included the setting of goals and formulating of action plans to achieve those.
This approach was drastically simplified by Mintzberg , p. Mintzberg later acknowledged that strategies can also arise from learning processes over time, and not solely from formulating of plans.
In a sense, strategies are the link between company goals, operative decisions and the ensuing measures. As companies are constantly exposed to changes in their environment, strategies must be flexible and ready to adapt to those alterations. Another valid insight comes from Peter Drucker , cited by Jobber , p. Because the purpose of business is to create and keep customers, it has only two central functions — marketing and innovation.
The basic function of marketing is to attract and retain customers at a profit. Both conventional definitions have in common that they focus on customers as well as profitability. A third indispensable component which they are missing is competition. This concept is based on three pillars 21 :. Customer orientation : All company activities must be aligned on providing customer satisfaction. Integrated effort : Creation of customer satisfaction is a priority by all departments and not only the marketing team.
Goal achievement : Management is convinced and leads by example that satisfied customers help reach business goals. By pursuing this marketing concept companies ensure that the customer is at the heart of their corporate strategy. Ideally, organizations are in the position to adapt to such changes as they occur or to even anticipate them beforehand. First of all, an organization needs to be clear about their essential purpose, before even contemplating about the corporate and marketing strategy.
This can be achieved by asking five basic questions: What is our business? Who is the customer and what is beneficial for him? What will our business be and what should our business be? The corresponding answers are usually formulated in a corporate mission statement. In principle it is the management of competitive advantages, which in essence are bound to particular strategic business units SBU. In other words, from a customer perspective, the perceived value of a product or service must be significantly higher than the expenses he must incur to obtain said product.
In a market-oriented business environment, a marketing strategy is an integral part of the overall corporate strategy. It is then cascaded to the functional level and to the SBUs. In contrast, competitive advantages always relate to a precise product category and offering in a relevant target market. On these grounds, strategic marketing pays special attention to customers and competition and mainly takes place on the business unit level. Companies can choose between three generic competition dimensions in order to position themselves in the marketplace.
They can compete on price, quality, and time. Price leadership is a one-dimensional, yet complex strategy dimension. One would assume that the price advantage automatically becomes the competitive advantage, too. However, it is not that simple. On the one hand, it can be a cost-based price leadership strategy; based on a leadership in cost efficiency and assuming that prices are objective offer prices. The goal hereby is to achieve a transparent price advantage position over all competitors.
On the other hand, it can be aimed at subjective price labels; in which case it is referred to as a perception-based price leadership. Quality leadership , on the contrary, can be obtained in more than just one strategic dimension. This multidimensionality can be exemplified in the PC market. PCs consist of multiple quality characteristics. In addition to hardware components whose level of performance can be measured, computer models feature attributes like design, for instance. While one user might opt for a sleek design, another customer might prefer a fancy one. In any case, when determining quality under marketing aspects it has to be clear first which quality attributes are suited for the user.
Again, this customer-focused approach puts the consumer in the center of any quality leadership strategy. Time leadership can be interpreted in two ways. Traditionally, it has been concerned with the right timing of the market entry for companies. Regarding the right market entry, the goal of timing decisions is to convert product advantages into competitive advantages and, vice versa, to give up disadvantageous situations by choosing the right time to exit the market. For this purpose product development and market development need to be aligned.
Conversely, the right timing of the market entry is especially important in emerging, fast-growing markets, typically to be found in the high-tech industry. In a fast-moving market environment with relatively short product life cycles, those missed revenues are difficult to recover. In time-based market entry strategies, it is distinguished between three segments: Pioneers the ones who are first-to-market with a new technology or innovative product , early followers Early-to-market entrants who offer a problem solution and late followers arrive when fundamental market structures have been established.
So far we have established that companies have three strategic options to create a competitive advantage, namely price leadership, quality leadership and time leadership. The generic marketing strategy approach is to solely focus on either one of three. The so-called hybrid marketing strategy targets a major competitive advantage by simultaneously focusing on two or even all three competition dimensions.
An uncertainty remains regarding when and under what circumstances either the generic strategy or the hybrid strategic is more beneficial. The potentially right choice depends upon the competencies and resources of the own company compared to those of the competitors as well as on consumer demands. In competitive environments, companies constantly need to reflect on their business to at least maintain their market position.
It considers products and markets based on their degree of novelty which in turn leads to four strategies with varying characteristics. The goal of the market penetration strategy is to increase the sales volume while maintaining present profit margins. In a growing market this can be achieved by convincing first-time users to buy, in a saturated market by an increase in market share.
This strategy is the least risky one since the company is already familiar with its products and customers. The market development strategy aims to offer existing products to new customer groups or geographical regions.
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For this strategy to succeed, barriers to enter the market, local market conditions and different customer habits and preferences need to be considered. Product development strategy refers to the introduction of new products in existing markets. Once steady demand is established, this strategy can lead to sales growth and a high profit potential. Thus, this strategy move needs to be carefully planned in advance. Palmer and Hartley , p. Previously see section 2.
So how exactly does this translate into marketing activities for firms?
In its latest definition, the American Marketing Association includes this transition from marketing as a function towards marketing being an educational process. The new definition states:. Marketing is the activity, set of institutions, and processes for creating, communicating, delivering, and exchanging offerings that have value for customers, clients, partners, and society at large.